Glossary

Adolescent
A young animal that is developing into an adult.

Adult
A fully-grown and developed animal.

Anesthetic
A substance that induces insensitivity to pain.

Antibodies
A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.

Antigen
A toxin or foreign substance that induces an immune response in the animal’s body.

Baseline
A minimum or starting point used for comparisons.

Biopsy
An examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause or extent of a disease.

Bit seats
The beveling of both upper and lower P2’s on both sides of the equine’s mouth, which helps reduce irritation caused by the bit as it bumps the front edges of the teeth when pressure is applied.

Broodmare
A female horse used for producing foals.

Castration
Removing the reproductive organs of a male.

Chronic
An illness that is persisting for a long time or constantly reoccurring.

Coggins Test
A required blood test that proves the horse is free of the Equine Infectious Anemia disease.

Culture
The cultivation of bacteria, tissue cells, etc., in an artificial medium containing nutrients.

Cytology
The branch of biology concerned with the structure and function of plant and animal cells.

Delayed Uterine Clearance
When a mare does not have normal uterine activity that is required to clear the uterus of excessive fluid after breeding.

Dentistry
A branch of medicine that’s involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of oral cavities and associated structures, and their impact on the body.

Diagnosis/Diagnostic
The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms.

Diet
The kinds of food that an animal habitually eats.

Digital
Involving or relating to the use of computer technology.

Endometritis
A condition that causes inflammation of the lining in a female animal’s uterus.

Endoscope
An instrument that can be introduced into the body to give a view of its internal parts.

Equine
A horse or other member of the horse family.

Exam/Examination
A medical inspection of a specified kind.

Exercise
Activity requiring physical effort, to help sustain or improve health and fitness.

Extraction
The action of taking out something, especially using effort or force.

Flea
A small insect that feeds on the blood of mammals and birds, which can infect and transmit diseases through its bite. Medical concerns that result from fleas can include tape worm, flea allergy dermatitis, flea bite anemia, and Lyme disease.

Foal
A young horse.

Foal Care
Giving special attention to a young horse, as the first month of their life is the most crucial.

Geriatric
An old animal.

Geriatric Care
Giving an animal special care due to old age.

Grooming
Giving a neat and tidy appearance to an animal. Includes services such as: bathing, nail clipping, hair brushing, and hair cutting.

Heartworm
A parasitic worm that infects the hearts of dogs and other animals when bitten by an infected mosquito carrying a heartworm parasite. Heartworm, if left untreated, can be fatal. Medical concerns that result from heartworm can include labored breathing, coughing, vomiting, weight loss, and fatigue.

Hematology
The study of the physiology of the blood.

Herd
A large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals, that live, feed, or migrate together or are kept together as livestock.

In-house
Without assistance from outside of an organization; completed internally.

Incisor
A narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth, adapted for cutting.

Laceration
A deep cut or tear, especially on skin.

Lameness
An animal unable to walk normally because of an injury or illness affecting the leg or foot.

Large Animals
Sizable animals that require their own set of care and treatment. West Dakota Veterinary Clinic treats: cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, llamas and alpaca.

Metabolic
The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.

Molar
A grinding tooth at the back of an animal’s mouth.

Molar Arcade Balance
A procedure performed to realign the molar-to-incisor balance and aid a horse in chewing properly again.

Neurologic
The branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system.

Neuter
The removal of a male animal’s reproductive organs.

Noninvasive
A medical procedure that does not require the introduction of instruments into the body.

Nutrition
The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.

Orthopedic
The branch of medicine dealing with the correction of deformities of bones or muscles.

Pharmacy
Where medicinal drugs are dispensed and sold.

Postpartum Care
Ensures the well-being of a female horse, and also helps ensure the chances of conceiving again.

Pre-purchase exam
An exam performed before purchasing a horse to identify any preexisting problems that may hinder a horse’s future performance and reduce buyer risk.

Prescription
An instruction written by a medical practitioner that allows a patient to be provided with medicine or treatment.

Preventive
Designed to keep something such as an illness, harm, or accidents from occurring.

Procedure
A series of actions carried through in a certain order or manner.

Radiograph
An image produced by an X-ray machine used in a medical examination.

Reduction
The action of making something smaller or less in amount, degree, or size.

Rehabilitate
Restore health with training and therapy after an illness or injury.

Reproduction
The production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process.

Small Animals
Animals of little size. West Dakota Veterinary Clinic treats: dogs, cats, rabbits, and other small animals (i.e., guinea pigs, gerbils, hamsters, rats and mice).

Soundness
In good condition; something that is not damaged, injured, or diseased.

Spay
The removal of a female’s reproductive organs.

Stallion
An uncastrated adult male horse.

Sutures
A row of stitches holding together the edges of a wound or incision.

Teasing
Using a male horse to check if a mare is in season and receptive to the stallion for breeding purposes.

Tick
An external parasite that feeds on the blood of animals such as canines. Medical concerns that result from a tick can include Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Tooth Abscess
An infection at the root of a tooth or between the gum and a tooth usually caused by severe tooth decay.

Ultrasound
A device used externally in horses for evaluation of soft tissue and tendon injuries, as well as internally for reproductive exams such as evaluations of the reproductive tract and pregnancy detection.

Uterine Lavage
A treatment option for mares with delayed uterine clearance who are susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis and other uterine pathologies.

Vaccination Protocol
The established code of procedure or behavior related to the process of administering a vaccine to an animal.

Vaccine
A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against certain diseases.

Veterinarian
A person qualified to treat and attend to animals.

Wellness
The state or condition of being in good physical and mental health.